What is the VAT threshold for 2023 and when do you need to register for VAT? A small business guide to value added tax (VAT): its threshold, rates, when you may need to register and how. Written by Stephanie Lennox Updated on 23 January 2023 Our experts We are a team of writers, experimenters and researchers providing you with the best advice with zero bias or partiality. Written and reviewed by: Stephanie Lennox Writer Our independent reviews are funded in part by affiliate commissions, at no extra cost to our readers. The VAT threshold for registration in 2023 is £85,000. This has been fixed in place since 2017, and will remain the same until 31 March 2024. Understanding the VAT threshold is a crucial part of getting your small business accounting in order. VAT is a tax charged by VAT-registered businesses on most goods and services in the UK (and some services that are imported from other EU countries.)A common question business owners ask themselves is do I need to register for VAT? And the answer depends mostly on turnover.If your taxable turnover has exceeded £85,000 you'll need to become VAT-registered business: one where you will have charge customers VAT on top of their sales price, collect the cash and then pay it over to HM Revenue & Customs – minus any VAT they've incurred on their purchases.You can also become a VAT-registered business voluntarily to obtain some of the benefits. For instance, if a VAT-registered business is charged VAT when it buys goods or services, it can generally reclaim the VAT it has incurred.But the real question here is — when should you do all of this? Don't worry, we'll cover all you need to know below.Don't miss a detail when doing your VAT returns – especially since the ruling of the new ‘Making Tax Digital‘ laws, you'll need to choose accounting software you can rely on. We've reviewed a few of the best below: Swipe right to see more 0 out of 0 backward forward BEST OVERALL 90% OFF DEAL QuickBooks FreshBooks Xero Clear Books Zoho Books Price From £10 per month Free for 3 monthsFor a short time only Price From £12 per month 50% off for 3 months Price From £12 per month (excl. VAT) Price From £12.00/mo £6.00/mo *first 3 months (excl. VAT) Price From Free, or £12 per month (excl. VAT) Rating 4.7 Rating 4.0 Rating 4.6 Rating 4.2 Rating 4.0 Free Trial Free Trial Free Trial Free Trial Free Trial Compare accounting software and find the right deal for you Compare now In this guide What is the VAT threshold for compulsory VAT registration? Voluntary VAT registration Who cannot register for VAT? Different VAT rates explained Choosing a VAT scheme What is the VAT threshold for compulsory VAT registration?The current VAT registration threshold for 2023 is £85,000. This is fixed now until 31 March 2024.A business must register for VAT if its taxable turnover for any consecutive 12-month period exceeds the VAT registration threshold.Another common reason why a business may be forced to register for VAT is if it takes over an existing business that is VAT-registered. The test is if the taxable turnover of the purchaser for the last 12 months added to the turnover of the business being purchased is over the VAT registration threshold – if the answer is yes, then the business is obliged to register.There is also an obligation to register for VAT if you think your business' turnover will exceed the threshold within just 30 days, but for most businesses, this would not apply. There are other scenarios when VAT registration becomes compulsory, for instance if you are trading outside of the UK.Failure to register on time may lead to late registration penalties and/or ‘failure to notify' penalties. What's more, surcharges and interest are likely to be charged for late payment if the business has a VAT liability. If your business' turnover exceeds the VAT threshold temporarily, you can ask HMRC for an exception from registration. Voluntary VAT registrationIf the taxable turnover of your business does not exceed the current VAT registration threshold, you can still register for VAT voluntarily.There are two main reasons why a business might opt to register for VAT:Customers are predominately other VAT-registered businesses and therefore any VAT they are charged can be recovered, so it makes no difference to their customers whether they are VAT registered or notThey are often in a refund position with HMRC, so the business is actually better off being VAT registered. Who cannot register for VAT?An entity cannot register for VAT if it does not meet the definition of a business as stated by HMRC for VAT purposes.A business is also prohibited from registering if it tends to sell only goods or services that are exempt from VAT.Always consider the customer when registering for VAT…Let's explain the first point in more detail, using a retailer as an example:If a retailer's customers are generally other VAT-registered businesses, they will not mind whether they are charged VAT, because they can obtain a refund from HMRC.So the business is probably better off registering for VAT because it can recover the VAT on its purchases. And this tactic isn't at all risky or dishonest – it's estimated that around 20% of all VAT-registered businesses trade below the VAT registration threshold.However, if a retailer's customers are the general public (who are not VAT-registered), then they cannot recover the VAT. Therefore, the VAT is an additional cost to the public and inflates the retail price, so think carefully about whether you have to charge VAT. If the retailer's rivals are not VAT-registered, its prices won't be as competitive. The different VAT ratesTo illustrate point two, let's look at the different categories items fall into for VAT purposes:NameCurrent rateDescription and examplesStandard20%The standard rate of VAT is the default rate - this is the rate that's charged on most goods and services in the UK unless they're specifically identified as being reduced or zero-rated.Reduced5%Domestic fuel and power, installation of energy-saving materials, sanitary hygiene products, children's car seat, etc.Zero0%Food (not meals in a restaurant or hot takeaways though), books/ newspapers, children's clothes/ shoes, public transport etc.ExemptN/aThe law stipulates that VAT exempt goods or services must not have any VAT charged on them. Examples include insurance, providing credit, education, fundraising, membership, etc.Outside the scopeN/aItems that are completely outside of the UK VAT system. Examples include drawings, wages, MOT tests, rates, etc.Farming is an industry where VAT refunds often occur. Their direct purchases are mostly zero-rated and so are their sales. However, any VAT they incur on other expenses such as overheads or equipment can be recovered – hence the refund position.Other examples of businesses that may wish to register for VAT voluntarily might include a green grocers or a children's shoe shop. Again, their sales and direct purchases will generally be zero-rated, however, if they incur any overheads, legal fees or equipment, they should be able to recover any VAT they've been charged on these purchases. Choosing a VAT schemeOnce you've established when to register for VAT, you'll want to consider the most appropriate VAT scheme for your business. There are three main options:VAT flat rate schemeThis is only eligible for businesses with less than £150,000 (of taxable turnover – this is the total of everything you've sold that isn't VAT exempt). The scheme is designed to make record keeping more simple for small businesses by allowing you to apply a fixed-rate percentage to turnover, dependent on industry.For more detailed information from HMRC, click here.VAT cash accounting schemeAnother popular choice for start-ups and small businesses (turnover must be less than £1.35m), in this scheme you only have to pay VAT on your sales once you have received payment from your customers. Likewise you only reclaim VAT on any purchases you make once you have paid your supplier.Typically, outside of this scheme VAT payments are due to HMRC regardless of whether your invoices have been paid yet, which can cause cashflow issues.You cannot use the cash accounting scheme in conjunction with the VAT flat rate scheme.Annual accounting schemeRather than filing your return each quarter, this scheme allows businesses to submit one annual return, as well as making advance payments (using estimated amounts based on the previous year's return) throughout the year.Once you've completed your return, you can then either make a final payment (to cover any shortfall between your advance payments and the final bill) or apply for a VAT refund if you've overpaid.For more information on VAT registration, check out part two of this guide: How to register for VAT Startups.co.uk is reader-supported. If you make a purchase through the links on our site, we may earn a commission from the retailers of the products we have reviewed. This helps Startups.co.uk to provide free reviews for our readers. It has no additional cost to you, and never affects the editorial independence of our reviews. Share this post facebook twitter linkedin Written by: Stephanie Lennox Writer Stephanie Lennox is the resident funding & finance expert at Startups: A successful startup founder in her own right, 2x bestselling author and business strategist, she covers everything from business grants and loans to venture capital and angel investing. With over 11 years of hands-on experience in the startup industry, Stephanie is passionate about how business owners can not only survive but thrive in the face of turbulent financial times and economic crises. With a background in media, publishing, finance and sales psychology, and an education at Oxford University, Stephanie has been featured on all things 'entrepreneur' in such prominent media outlets as The Bookseller, The Guardian, TimeOut, The Southbank Centre and ITV News, as well as several other national publications.