How to become an accountant

If you've got strong maths skills and a good eye for detail, consider becoming a self-employed accountant. Learn how to start your business with our guide

There are a number of different opportunities open to those who are considering starting their own accounting business. Accountants are a necessity for many businesses across the UK.

While many people may use online accounting services nowadays, there’s still demand for actual accountants too, as they can bring mathematical and financial expertise to businesses. Whether you’re keen to start a general accounting practice, or you want to specialise in tax, auditing or another area of the profession, there are companies out there who will be eager to hire your services.

In 2016, UK businesses spent approximately £17.1 billion on accounting services.

This is data from The Accountancy Professions in the UK report published in 2017 by Oxford Economics for the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies (CCAB).

We’re here to provide you with a step-by-step guide to becoming a self-employed accountant.


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In this article we’ll cover:

  1. Training and qualifications
  2. Costs
  3. Potential earnings
  4. Becoming self-employed
  5. Finding clients

You can go to the section that you want to read about the most. Or, scroll through the whole article for a step-by-step guide to becoming a self-employed accountant.

Alternatively, if you’re looking to become an accountant and need to take your AAT qualification, you can compare quotes to complete the training by filling in the form at the top of the page.


1. Training and qualifications

When working out which training and qualifications you’ll need to obtain to set up your own accountancy business, you need to know the difference between being an accountant and being a chartered accountant.

You can become an accountant with a professional diploma in accounting from The Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT), for example. This is seen as the minimum requirement to work in the profession.

To gain chartered status – and to have the qualifications after your name – you’ll need to become a chartered accountant. This involves completing specific training with a professional body, such as the Association of Chartered Accountants (ACA) or the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA).

You could also complete your AAT training first so that you can work as an accountant, then in time look to become a chartered accountant (such as with an ACA qualification).

What are the entry requirements?

While a degree and previous study of maths or finance subjects can be helpful, it’s not a prerequisite to study for accountant qualifications in the UK.

How long does it take?

To get started, it takes nine-18 months of study to obtain the AAT professional diploma.

If you decide to become a chartered accountant, this usually involves three-10 years of study alongside practical experience, depending on which training you choose to do.

Having a degree and studying to become a chartered accountant means that you may be exempt from having to take certain papers, as you’ve already achieved competency in that particular area and would be likely to complete the training more quickly.

It’s worth noting that there quite a considerable time and effort involved in becoming an accountant. While this may not be suitable for everyone, the rewards (such as potential earnings and being able to work for yourself) can also be considerable too. See below for more information on the costs of training.

Once you achieve chartered status, it must be maintained by participating in Continuing Professional Education (CPE) training annually.

How do you specialise?

It’s worth noting that qualifications from different professional organisations lead to different specialisms.

For example, if you wanted to pursue management accountancy, then your best bet would be to train with the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA). Alternatively, if you wanted to focus on auditing, then an ACA qualification would be the most suitable.

While it’s possible to use an ACA, ACCA or CIMA qualification to start your own business, you’ll first have to spend time working for an employer while completing your training.

Some training programmes (such as the ACA qualification) stipulate that all studies must be completed with the same employer, while others – like the ACCA – allow you to accumulate training time across different employers.

What is a certificate to practise?

As a self-employed accountant, you’ll need a certificate to practise too. This is also known as a practising certificate (PC) and it’s necessary for every type of accountancy you offer.

For example, to offer public practice, you’re required to have a PC from ACCA or the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW). If you’re a member of the AAT, another option is to apply to be licenced from them.

Once you’ve acquired the skills needed to be an accountant, you should think about the type of accountancy services you’d like to offer customers. Some examples of specialisms and ideas to help you differentiate yourself from your competitors include:

  • Auditing
  • Cloud software
  • Foreign languages
  • International experience
  • Project work
  • Sector-specific e.g. commercial, creative or not-for-profit sectors
  • Tax


2. Costs

In the next two sections, we’ll look at two key questions: as a self-employed accountant, what can you expect to pay out, and what can you expect to earn back?

Insurance – you’ll need to make sure you have sufficient cover in place to protect you and your business in case the worst should happen. A key policy to take out is professional indemnity insurance, which covers you should a client experience negative impacts from mistaken advice you’ve provided.

You should also consider insuring your business with policies too: for example, contents insurance will cover your business’ equipment, while a business interruption policy will protect you should your business be unable to operate as usual. If you eventually take on staff, you’ll need appropriate insurance for employees too.

Training/qualifications – as outlined in the section above, there are several courses you can take to become an accountant. The AAT professional diploma qualification costs in the region of £1,000-£3,000, plus fees.

Practicing certificate (PC) – the price of these certificates depends on if you’re required to have a PC and where in the world you work. As an example, if you’re a practicing accountant in the UK in public practice, the 2018 ICAEW practising fee is £343.

Premises – whether you choose to work from home or from an office, you’ll need to consider the set-up costs. For more information on the expenses to start working from home, read our article with a breakdown of home office costs.

Software – while most of the basic software you’ll need – like an email account or spreadsheets – can be obtained for free or at a low price, you should budget for any more complex software you may need. For example, cloud software such as Xero or QuickBooks may well be required as your practise grows.


3. Potential earnings

As with any new business, it’s difficult to predict how much you’ll bring in, especially in the early days. To get an idea though, here are the average figures for employed accountants.

The average accountant salary in the UK is around £60,000, according to Accountancy Age.

A chartered accountant’s salary in the UK is in the region of £35,000-£55,000, on average.

As a self-employed accountant, there are a number of factors that are likely to affect your earnings. These include:

  • Experience – accountants with several years of experience are likely to be able to charge higher fees than those who are newly qualified.
  • Extra skills – if you can bring high-level experience from another related field, such as law or technology, consider this when setting fees for clients.
  • Location – where you’re located can affect how much you pay for work space or travel costs, as well as other expenses. For example, costs in London can differ to the rest of the UK, while prices will vary by region outside the capital too. Take this into account when costing your services.
  • Specialism – if you’re starting your own business with previous expert knowledge in a certain type of accounting, or bringing sector-specific expertise, you can factor this into the price point of your services.

You’ll also need to bear in mind that when you’re self-employed, you may be able to charge a higher hourly or daily rate than working as an employee. However, this is balanced out by not being entitled to sick or holiday pay.


4. Becoming self-employed

There are a few actions you’ll need to take to ensure that you can work as a self-employed accountant.

In this section, we’ll look at how to register with HMRC and possible locations from which to run your business, as well as how to approach the transition from full-time employment to small business owner.

Register with HMRC

One of the key differences between being employed and running your own business is how your tax is filed.

If you’re looking to work as an accountant on a freelance basis, you’re likely to know this already – you’ll need to ensure your business’ own taxes and finances are in order before advising others! Read our article on how to register as self-employed for a step-by-step guide.

Some of the main points to know about being self-employed are:

  • You’re responsible for completing tax assessments for your business
  • You have different rights in terms of employment conditions e.g. no holiday or sick pay

Register with a professional body

This will depend on the training and qualifications you decide to take to become an accountant. For those who want to become chartered certified accountants specifically, then completing training and registering with ACCA is essential.

For others, it’s still worth finding out if you can register with a professional body. Being part of a national or international accountancy organisation can offer extra credibility, and help potential customers decide to work with you. In addition to ACCA, other professional accountancy bodies in the UK include:

  • Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA)
  • Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS)
  • Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW)

Transition from employment to small business owner

How you run your own business depends a lot on your personal circumstances. For example, if you’re currently working and want to test your business idea and build it up gradually, you could start your accountancy business as a side hustle.

Perhaps there’s a particular specialism that you’d like to focus on, or maybe you’re wanting to switch professions entirely – whatever your situation, running your own business around existing work commitments is possible.

Choose a location

Once you’ve registered with the appropriate authorities and figured out how you want to begin working for yourself, the next step is to think about where you’d like to work. In the early days, it’s likely that you’ll work from home.

As your business expands, you may need more space than your spare room allows, so you’ll need to find premises for your business.

Renting an office in a coworking space could be ideal if you need to be located in a particular area. Alternatively, a virtual office may be preferable if you decide to operate an online-only accountancy business.

GDPR: What do self-employed accountants need to know?

The General Data Protection Regulation came into effect in the UK on 25 May 2018. If you’ll be storing personal information about clients, be sure to find out more about GDPR and its impact on business.


5. Finding clients

Once you know what training you’ll need and have an idea of what you can expect to pay out for (and earn back) as a self-employed accountant, it’s time to actually get out there and find clients for your business.

It’s essential to have the technical skills needed to be an accountant and know how to attract new business. Here, we’ve outlined some of the best ways to promote your business.

Create a website

It’s essential for a business, whatever its size and nature, to have a website. People expect to be able to find a business online and find out what it does. Your website should include key details, including contact information and the services you offer.

In time, as your business grows, you may consider building out your website with more information. This could include a video showing what you do, or a collection of testimonials from previous customers.

It’s becoming easier and easier to create a website yourself – check out our guide to the best website builders. Another option is to hire a professional web designer, particularly if you want a custom site or require high-level functionality.

Post on social media

Although maybe not an obvious choice for an accountancy business, social media sites offer more opportunities to promote your work, as well as to connect with customers.

While there are a vast array of sites to choose from, consider which would best fit your business and matches your target audience, as well as which platform will get your website noticed.

For example, you can reach out to other professionals on LinkedIn, while Twitter offers the chance to build your brand and share content with your audience.

Word-of-mouth

However, having an online presence isn’t the only way to find clients – don’t forget about recommendations. Once you’ve secured one or two clients, you can begin to think about expanding your customer base by being referred through their networks.

If you do the job well and people are happy with your service, it’s possible to find more work from them telling others about your services.

You could encourage this by offering discounted rates or special offers for customers who are referred to your business. You could also collect testimonials for your website and social media channels from current customers.

Traditional marketing

It’s also useful to consider traditional forms of marketing to ensure you’re reaching the widest possible range of potential customers. These include:

  • Print ads and flyers – display in trade publications and distribute at conferences or other relevant industry events.
  • Hand out business cards– carry your company’s key contact information on you at all times with business cards, and be ready to give them out whenever you meet a potential customer.
  • Attend networking sessions – in addition to finding clients who are looking for accountancy services now, it’s also useful to build a network of associates for the future too. As well as networking opportunities, seminars and conferences offer the chance to stay up-to-date with the latest trends and developments in the industry, which is particularly ideal for self-employed accountants who may work independently.

What are the next steps?

At this point, you’ve learned more about the skills needed to be an accountant, including which training and qualifications you’ll need to complete. We’ve also looked at the process of becoming a self-employed accountant, including what you can expect to earn and how to find clients.

So what’s next? It’s time to put this information to use and get going with starting your own accountancy business! An ideal next step could be to speak with experts – simply complete the form at the top of the page to compare quotes for AAT accounting training.